Tawabi' (التوابع)

Tawabi’ or التوابع is a plural of word تابع.

تابع comes from

تبع يتبع
meaning to follow

Tawabi’ follows what is before it in I’rab and has no I’rab of its own

التوابع تتبع ما قبلها في الإعراب وليس لها إعراب خاص

For example, in رأيت الطالبَ المجتهدَ, we have المجتهدَ is following الطالبَ in I’rab (as Sifa)

There are four types of Tawabi’

Four Types of Tawabi


النعت comes from the word

نعت ينعت انعت النعت

meaning characteristic OR features. It is synonymous to word صفة

Types of النعت

Types of Nait

النعت الحقيقي
In this النعت, we describe noun before it i.e.

ينعت اسماً سابقاً عليه

For example

النعت follows المنعوت in following things

Exception Rule
If المنعوت is Plural (جمع) + Feminine (مؤنث) + NOT Rational (غير عاقل), We can use Singular or Plural النعت.
For Example,

النعت السببي
In this النعت, we describe noun after it i.e.

ينعت اسماً يأتي بعده

For example
In جاء طالبٌ مجتهدٌ أخوه (Student came whose brother is hardworking)

Irab of جاء طالبٌ مجتهدٌ أخوه will be,

(فاعل (منعوت
نعت سببي مرفوع
فاعل مرفوع بالواو

Quranic Example

ربنا أخرجنا من هذه القريةِ الظالمِ أهلُها

Irab of ربنا أخرجنا من هذه القريةِ الظالمِ أهلُها will be,

بدل مجرور
نعت سببي مجرور
فاعل مرفوع

النعت السببي follows المنعوت (i.e. the noun before it) in following things

النعت السببي follows الاسم اللاحق (i.e. the noun after it) in following things

We can also divide النعت as

Golden Rule


العطف is divided into two categories

Types of Atf

Let’s start with

عطف نسق

In عطف نسق, we use حروف العطف which are 10 in number. First being

The word coming after و share the same Hukm or meaning.
For example in جاء زيدٌ وعمروٌ,

This harf provides الترتيب i.e. order and التعقيب i.e. the meaning of right after him.
For example in جاء زيدٌ فعمروٌ,

This harf provides الترتيب i.e. order and التراخي i.e. the meaning of after a while.
For example in جاء زيدٌ ثم عمروٌ,

This harf is mostly used as Harf Jar and sometimes as Harf Atf.

We use حَتَّى for

Lets ponder over حَتَّى more by taking following examples,

Case 1: حَتَّى As Harf Atf
حَتَّى can come as حرف عطف.
For e.g.

Case 2: حَتَّى As Harf استئناف
حَتَّى can come as حرف استئناف meaning we use it at the beginning of the sentence.
For e.g.أكلتُ السمكةَ حتى رأسُها (I ate the fish with its head)

Note: خبر of رأسُها is estimated as أكلته

In this case either الجملة الاسمية or الفعل الماضي can come after Hatta.

Case 3: حَتَّى As Harf Jar
حَتَّى can come as حرف جر.
For e.g. أكلتُ السمكةَ حتى رأسِها (I ate the fish till its head (i.e. He hasn’t eaten the head))

In this case either اسم or الفعل المضارع can come after Hatta.

حتى/Hatta forms

أَمْ is divided into two types

أو is divided into two types

Quranic Example:

This harf is used for corrections i.e. للاستدراك .

It becomes harf Atf under two conditions

Example: لم أقرأ الدرس لكن حفظت القرآن

This harf is used for negating the Hukm of المعطوف i.e. تفيد نفي الحكم عن المعطوف.

It becomes harf Atf under two conditions

Example: جاء زيدٌ لا عمروٌ meaning Zaid came and Amr didn’t come

If we use negation and a harf Atf (e.g. و) then لا will not be harf Atf.
For example, in ما جاء زيد ولا عمرو, here الواو is حرف عطف and لا is حرف زائد لتوكيد النفي

It is divided into two

There is a debate among the Ulema whether this Harf is Atf or not.
Imam Hariri considers إمَّا as harf Atf.

It has similar meaning of او (in إباحة and تخيير ).

We need to have two إمَّا in a single sentence for it to be treated as Harf Atf.
For example in sentence, ادرس إمَّا النحوَ وإمَّا الصرفَ

Below chart lists all the عطف نسق

Types of Atf Nask


There are two types of التوكيد

Types of Tawkeed

Let’s begin by discussing …

توكيد معنوي

In التوكيد المعنوي, we use specific words (ألفاظ خاصة) to make التوكيد. They are as follows,

Use of نفس/عين
We use نفس OR عين to remove any ambiguity.
For example in جاء الملك نفسُه (King himself came)

توكيد مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة

In above sentence, if we have just said جاء الملكُ then it MAY mean that king has sent someone on his behalf but by using نفسُه we have removed all the ambiguity.

Similarly, we have

In all above examples, زيد is مؤكد and نفس is توكيد

Use of كُلُّ
For things like a book (which have parts) we can use كلَّه, for example when I say

قرأت الكتابَ كلَّه
I mean I’ve read all the book (not a single page is left)

Quranic Example:

Use of كلا OR كلتا
We use كلا OR كلتا for Dual.
For example

Use of جميع
We use جميع with plural.
For example in جاء الطلابُ جميعُهم (here جميعُ is توكيد and هم goes back to الطلابُ).

We have a similar construction جاء الطلابُ جميعاً, here جميعاً is حال منصوب وعلامة نصبه الفتحة not توكيد

Quranic Example:
فسجد الملائكةُ كلُّهم أجمعون

توكيد مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الضمة
توكيد مرفوع وعلامة رفعه الواو

توكيد اللفظي

In التوكيد اللفظي, we have repetition of word (تكرار اللفظ) or meaning (معناه).
For example,


To understand البدل lets take an example,

جاء الخليفةُ عمرُ

(فاعل مرفوع (مبدل منه
بدل مرفوع

here الخليفة and عمر represents same person i.e. الخليفة = عمر

البدل has following 4 kinds

Types of Badl

Phew !!

Take Deep Breath people. I know it’s a lot but that how tawabi in Arabic works :)


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